While the prevalence of all types of chronic conditions is increasing, diabetes is one of the few long-term conditions that individuals can successfully manage and control on a day-to-day basis, providing that they have access to appropriate advice and support. Blood glucose monitoring and patient education are essential in diabetes care and management, and if used appropriately, can help to achieve maximum benefit for the patient and diabetes care team. This learning module considers the link between blood glucose levels and the incidence of diabetes-related complications. It explores the different blood glucose monitoring strategies, particularly self-monitoring of blood glucose in people with type 2 diabetes. The frequency of blood glucose monitoring, and the identification of patterns and trends in blood glucose control are highlighted and applied to practice.