Group B streptococcus (GBS) colonisation can occur intermittently in a proportion of the population. This normally benign gram-positive bacterium has the potential to cause neonatal sepsis if the baby is exposed to it during vaginal delivery. Overwhelming sepsis in the neonate occurs infrequently, with most cases occurring in those with identified risk factors in labour. Current care recommendations advocate treating the colonised mother with intrapartum antibiotics during labour and monitoring of the newborn. The aim of this module is to provide an understanding of the risks to the baby of GBS colonisation, raise awareness of current intrapartum care recommendations and offer insight into the issues faced by childbearing families and their healthcare providers when the woman is colonised with GBS.