People with Down’s syndrome enjoy a longer life expectancy now than they ever have before, and are therefore at greater risk of developing conditions associated with ageing, including dementia. The evidence base for the effects of dementia on people with Down’s syndrome is much smaller than that for older people generally, which means that learning disability professionals do not always recognise the condition and do not know to talk about dementia with clients who already have cognitive impairments, poor short-term memory or altered communication. As this module describes, professionals must make baseline assessments from which they can monitor changes in people’s behaviours. This involves finding out about clients’ lives in the past and present so that professionals can understand their preferences, how they communicate and what adjustments may be required in the future based on their levels of understanding. In addition, staff in learning disability and older persons’ services need information and education about the care of people with Down’s syndrome and dementia to increase their awareness, skills and confidence.